Function of Lymphocytes in Oligodendrocyte Development
Abstract：Oligodendrocytes generate myelin sheaths to promote rapid neurotransmission in the central nervous system (CNS). During brain development, oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) are generated in the medial ganglionic eminence, lateral ganglionic eminence, and dorsal pallium. OPCs proliferate and migrate throughout the CNS at the embryonic stage. After birth, OPCs differentiate into mature oligodendrocytes, which then insulate axons. Oligodendrocyte development is regulated by the extrinsic environment including neurons, astrocytes, and immune cells. During brain development, B lymphocytes are present in the meningeal space, and are involved in oligodendrocyte development by promoting OPC proliferation. T lymphocytes mediate oligodendrocyte development during the remyelination process. Moreover, a subset of microglia contributes to oligodendrocyte development during the neonatal periods. Therefore, the immune system, especially lymphocytes and microglia, contribute to oligodendrocyte development during brain development and remyelination.